Ancient & Medieval European Kingdoms

Posted Feb 27, 2019
Last Updated Jun 24, 2019


If we are fortunate enough to start taking our family history back into the middle and dark ages in Europe, we soon find that place names are unfamiliar.  For instance, where and what is West Francia, Austrasia, Gwenydd, etc.?  

Let's take a quick overview of the development of Europe.  If we roll back the clock for nearly 3,000 years, we find that the Mediterannean region was populated with established countries such as Rome, Greece, Palestine, etc.  However, the rest of Europe was inhabited by hundreds of tribes of various ethnic groups.  Large areas of Europe were inhabited by the Celts.  Other areas by various Germanic or Scandinavian tribes.   These tribes always had leaders or chiefs and existed as separate bands that traveled for commerce or war.

Eventually, these tribes began to establish territorial boundaries and  kingdoms emerged and the tribal chief became a prince or king.

The small kingdoms developed governments, led by the friends and relatives of the leader. Thus a privileged group arose with titles and we begin to have nobility in these small kingdoms.  As time went on, each kingdom wanted more territory, and warfare ensued.  As kingdoms were conquered, boundaries changed and kingdoms were absorbed either by warfare or perhaps by inter-kingdom marriages.  Eventually, these territories came under the leadership of more powerful centralized kings, and we started having counties and districts, and even nations.  With these new larger kingdoms, came new titles of nobility. For instance,  the kings sub-ruler over a district was an earl or  baron.  A sub-ruler over a county was a count.  Warriors were knights.  

There are many websites that have information about these petty kingdoms, showing their leaders and years of existence.  The Geni project has a website that lists most of them.  Its link is 

If you examine its website, you will notice that many of the listed kingdoms have a link.  However, these links are to other geni websites which may or may not provide further information.  However, most of the following kingdoms have other sites, mostly Wikipedia articles to provide more information.  Please use Google or another search engine to look them up.  Many of these sites show maps and names of rulers.  Please note that dates are often approximations.  I have used the Geni Project as a reference to prepare the following list, rearranging categories and adding additional information.  Do not assume that the years or tribes/nationalities are completely accurate.  Much is guesswork based on ancient documents. 

In Celtic Ireland, very little archeological findings and no written records other than observations of Greeks and Romans.  Ptolemy mentioned and mapped tribes of which we have no evidence of their existence outside of the mention, i.e., Venicnii, Robogdii, Darini, Magmatae., Voluntii, Eblani, Cauci, Autini, Gangani, Manapii, Omanapi, Velabori, Usdiae, and Iverni.  If they existed, we do not know their location.


               BRITISH ISLES                                            

                               KINGDOMS OF ENGLAND                                      

Name Present Location Tribe or Nationality Existed
Kingdom of Bernicia or Bryneich England & Scotland Angles 547-653
Kingdom of Cornwall England Britons 710-926
Kingdom of Deira England Angles 559-653
Kingdom of Dumnonia England Britons 290-710
Kingdom of East Anglia England Angles

6th Century-917

Kingdom of East Anglia (Saxon) England Saxons 7th-917
Kingdom of Ebrauc England-Yorkshire Britons 80 BC-5th AD
Kingdom of Elmet England Britons 5th-7th AD
Kingdom of England England Saxons 927-1707
Kingdom of Kent England Jutes 450-871
Kingdom of Meonwara England-Hampshire Jutes 7th Century
Kingdom of Mercia England Saxons 527-918
Kingdom of Middle Anglia (Midland) England Angles 9th Century
Kingdom of North Anglia See East Anglia England Angles 9th Century
Kingdom of Northumbria England Angles & Saxons 653-954
Kingdom of Rheged England Britons 450-634
Kingdom of the West Saxons England Saxons 519-927
Kingdom of Wight England Jutes 534-685

Viking Kingdom (Danelaw)

   The Vikings invaded England and established a Viking Kingdom which included the following shires in England:  Leicester, York, Nottingham, Derby, Lincon, Essex, Cambridge, Suffolk, Northampton, Huntingdon, Bedford, Hertford, Middlesex, and Buckingham from about 910 to 1085.


Kingdom of the Picts Scotland Picts 430-878
Kingdom of Gododdin England, Scotland Britons 7th-9th Centuries
Kingdom of Dál Riata (Dalriada) Ireland/Ulster - Antrim / Argyll, Bute & Lochaber Gaelic Irish & Scots 498-715
Kingdom of Strathclyde Scotland Scots 900-1100
Kingdom of Bernicia Scotland Scots 6th Century-654
Kingdom of Alba Scotland Scots & Picts 900-1286
Kingdom of Scotland Scotland Scots 843-1707

The Scots Kingdoms were Dál Riata, Strathclyde and Bernicia.  The kingdoms combined with the Picts to form the Kingdom of Alba.


Kingdom of Brycheiniog Wales - Breconshire Britons 5th-7th Centuries
Kingdom of Ceredigion Wales - Cardiganshire Britons 5-10th Centuries
Kingdom of Deheubarth Wales Britons 909-1063
Kingdom of Dyfed Wales - Pembrokeshire & Carmarthenshire Britons 410-920
Kingdom of Ergyng Wales - Breconshire, Radnorshire & England - Herefordshire Britons 5th-650
Kingdom of Gwent Wales - Monmouthshire Britons 500-942
Kingdom of Gwynedd Wales - Gwynedd including Anglesey Britons 5th-1282
Kingdom of Morgannwg (Glamorgan) originally Kingdom of Glwysing Wales - Glamorganshire Britons 1080-1536
Kingdom of Powys Wales - Denbighshire, Montgomeryshire, Radnorshire Britons 410-1160
Kingdom of Rhwng Gwy a Hafren(Fferllys) Wales - Area between the Wye and Severn Rivers Britons 10th-11th Centuries
Kingdom of Seisyllwg Wales Britons 680-920


Note:  Even though there are lists of Irish Kingdoms, not all were kingdoms as we think of a kingdom..  Some were no more than a city with a local ruler who had the title of king.  In some cases, some kingdoms of Ireland were simply family dynasties in a very limited area.  Rather than kingdom in some cases, a better designation might have been clan if the Irish and Scots used the same designations.

High Kingdom of Ireland Ireland Gaelic Irish BC - 1318
Kingdom of Ailech Ireland - Donegal Gaelic Irish 700-1185
Kingdom of Airgíalla Ulster - Louth & Monaghan Gaelic Irish 7th-8th Centuries
Kingdom of Brega Ireland - Meath, Louth & Dublin Gaelic Irish 6th-8th Centuries
Kingdom of Breifne Ireland - Leitrim, Cavan & Sligo Gaelic Irish 6th-13th Centuries
Kingdom of Connacht Ireland - Galway, Leitrim, Mayo, Roscommon & Sligo Gaelic Irish 1st-12 Centuries
Kingdom of Cork (see Kingdom of Desmond Ireland - Cork Gaelic Irish & Viking 1st-12 Centuries
Kingdom of Dál nAraidi Ulster - Antrim  Gaelic Irish 588-8th Century
Kingdom of Deissi Mumhain (See Munster) Ireland - Waterford Gaelic Irish 697-1244
Kingdom of Desmond (South Muinster) Ireland - Kerry, Cork Gaelic Irish 1118-1596
Kingdom of Dublin Ireland - Dublin Gaelic Irish & Viking 839-1171
Kingdom of East Breifne Ireland - County Cavan Gaelic Irish 10th Century -1579
Kingdom of Fer Manach (Fermanagh) Uster - Fermanagh Gaelic Irish 1st-12 Centuries
Kingdom of Leinster Ireland - Leinster Gaelic Irish 7th Century BC - Present
Kingdom of Limerick (See Thomond) Ireland - Limerick Gaelic Irish & Viking 1st-12 Centuries
Kingdom of Luighne Connacht Ireland - Mayo & Sligo Gaelic Irish 8th - 17th Centuries
Kingdom of Magh Luirg Ireland Gaelic Irish 734-1604
Kingdom of Mide (Meath) Ireland - Meath, Westmeath, Cavan, Dublin, Kildare, Longford, Louth and Offaly Gaelic Irish 743-1604
Kingdom of Munster Ireland - Clare, Cork, Kerry, Limerick, Tipperary & Waterford Gaelic Irish 1st -16th Centuries
Kingdom of Oriel (see Airgíalla) Ireland Gaelic Irish 7th-8th Centuries
Kingdom of Osraige (Ossary) Ireland - Kilkenny  Laois Gaelic Irish 1st -16th Centuries
Kingdom of Síol Anmchadha Ireland - Galway Gaelic Irish 357-1316
Kingdom of Sliabh Lugha - Mayo Ireland Gaelic Irish
Kingdom of Tara (in name only) Ireland the whole island Gaelic Irish Mythical significance
Kingdom of Thomond (Tuadhmhuman or north Munster Ireland - Clare Gaelic Irish 1118-1543
Kingdom of Tír Chonaill Tyrconnell Ireland - Donegal Gaelic Irish 5th Century to 1607
Kingdom of Tír Eógain (Tyrone) Ulster - Tyrone Gaelic Irish 1185-1616
Kingdom of Tuisceairt see Airgíalla Ulster Gaelic Irish 6-16th Centuries
Kingdom of Uisnech (Mythological) Ireland - Westmeath Gaelic Irish 7th - 8th Centuries
Kingdom of Ulidh (Ulster) Ireland/Ulster - Donegal, Derry, Antrim, Tyrone, Down, Armagh, Fermanagh, Monaghan, Cavan Gaelic Irish 6-16th Centuries
Kingdom of Uí Cheinnselaig (Kinsella) Ireland - Carlow & Wexford Gaelic Irish 9th Century
Kingdom of Uí Díarmata Ireland - Galway Gaelic Irish 9th Century
Kingdom of Uí Failghe Ireland - Offaly & Kildare Gaelic Irish 9th Century
Kingdom of Uí Fiachrach Aidhne Ireland - Galway Gaelic Irish 9th Century
Kingdom of Uí Fiachrach Muaidhe Ireland - Mayo & Sligo Gaelic Irish 9th Century
Kingdom of Uí Maine Ireland - Connacht, Galway, & Roscommon Gaelic Irish 367 - 9th Century
Kingdom of Umaill Ireland - Mayo  Gaelic Irish 9th Century
Kingdom of Waterford Ireland - Waterford Gaelic Irish & Viking
Kingdom of Wexford Ireland - Wexford Gaelic Irish
                        Central Europe                       
Kingdom of Armorica Brittany Gauls 500-700
Kingdom of Armorica-Leon Brittany Gauls 500-700
Kingdom of Armorica-Domnonia Brittany Gauls 500-700
Kingdom of Armorica-Poher Brittany Gauls 500-700
Kingdom of Armorica-Cornouaille Brittany Gauls 500-700
Kingdom of Armorica-Bro Erech Brittany Gauls 500-700
Kingdom of Armorica-Nantes Brittany Gauls 500-700
Kingdom of Magna Firisia Netherlands Dutch 600-734
Duchy of Normandy France Normans (Danes) 9th-Present
Duchy of Aquitaine France Franks 629-632
Kingdom of Arles France Franks 933-1378
Kingdom of Austrasia and Burgundy France Franks 613-613
Kingdom of Burgundy France Franks 561-613
Kingdom of France France Gauls Normans French 987-1791
Kingdom of Neustria France Franks 561-613
Kingdom of Orleans France Franks 511-524
Kingdom of Paris (Francia) France Franks 511-567
Kingdom of Reims France Franks 511-555
Kingdom of Soissons (Noviodunum) France Franks 511-558
Kingdom of the Burgundians France Germanic Franks 4th-534
Kingdom of West Francia France Franks 843-987
Kingdom of Alamannia Germany France Switzerland Germanic Alemannii 213-9th Century
Kingdom of Austrasia France Germany Belgium Luxembourg Netherlands Franks 561-718

Kingdom of the Franks (Francia)

France Germany Belgium Luxembourg Netherlands Franks 486-840
Kingdom of Middle Francia Switzerland, France, Italy Franks 817-855
Kingdom of Lotharingia Switzerland Franks 855-869
Kingdom of East Francia Germany Franks 843-1477
Kingdom of Germany Germany Germanic Groups 919-1792
Holy Roman Empire Germany Saxons 800-1806
Kingdom of Thuringia Germany Thuringii 250-532
Kingdom of the Saxons Various Saxons 400-1066
                     Southern Europe                       
Kingdom of the Vandals Sicily Corsica Sardinia Malta Balearics Germanic Vandals 429-533
Kingdom of Candia Crete Italians 1205-1669
Kingdom of Sicily Italy/Sicily Italians 1130-1816
Kingdom of Italy Italy Italians 476-493
Kingdom of the Lombards Italy Germanic Lombards 568-774
Kingdom of Naples Italy Italians 1282-1816
Kigdom of the Osrogoths Italy Vandals 493-553
Kingdom of the Visigoths Spain Visigoths 418-721
Kingdom of Aragon Spain Spanish 1035-1516
Kingdom of Valencia Spain Spanish 1238-1707
Kingdom of Majorca Spain Spanish 1231-1344
Kingdom of Asturias Spain Spanish 718-910
Kingdom of Castile Spain Spanish 1035-1516
Kingdom of León Spain Spanish 910-1230
Kingdom of Toledo Spain Spanish 1085-1469
Suebic Kingdom of Galicia Spain Spanish 410-585
Kingdom of Galicia Spain Spanish 910-1157
Kingdom of Portugal Portugal Portugese 1139-1815
Kingdom of Denmark Denmark Danish 756 - Present
Kingdom of Reitgotaland Denmark or Sweden Danish? 5th Century
Kingdom of Norway Norway Norwegian 872-Present
Kingdom of Agder Norway Norwegian 7th-987
Kingdom of Fjordane Norway Norwegian 7th?
Kingdom of Grenland Norway Norwegian 7th?
Kingdom of Gudbrandsdal Norway Norwegian 7th?
Kingdom of Hadeland Norway Norwegian 7th?
Kingdom of Hardanger Norway Norwegian 7th?
Kingdom of Hedmark Norway Norwegian 7th?
Kingdom of Hordaland Norway Norwegian 7th-9th
Kingdom of Hålogaland Norway Norwegian 7th?
Kingdom of Land Norway Norwegian 7th?
Kingdom of Namdalen Norway Norwegian 7th?
Kingdom of Nordmøre Norway Norwegian 7th?
Kingdom of Oppland Norway Norwegian 7th?
Kingdom of Orkdalen Norway Norwegian 7th
Kingdom of Ranrike Norway Norwegian 7th?
Kingdom of Raumarike Norway Norwegian 8th-9th
Kingdom of Ringerike Norway Norwegian 7th?
Kingdom of Rogaland Norway Norwegian 6th-9th
Kingdom of Romsdal Norway Norwegian 7th?
Kingdom of Sogn Norway Norwegian 7th?
Kingdom of Solør Norway Norwegian 7th?
Kingdom of Sunnmøre Norway Norwegian 7th?
Kingdom of Telemark Norway Norwegian 7th?
Kingdom of Toten Norway Norwegian 7th?
Kingdom of Trøndelag Norway Norwegian 7th?
Kingdom of Vestfold Norway Norwegian 10th-13th
Kingdom of Vestmar Norway Norwegian 7th?
Kingdom of Vingulmark Norway Norwegian 10th-11th
Kingdom of Viken Norway Norwegian 7th?
Kingdom of Voss Norway Norwegian 7th?
Kingdom of Sweden Sweden Swedish 973-Present
kingdom of Angeln Sweden Swedish 5th Century


Defining that part of Europe that is considered Eastern Europe is difficult.  It is often defined in various ways: geo-political, by ethnic groups, by geographic landmarks, and by religion  There are four defined areas for grouping countries:  Eastern Europe, Southeastern Europe, Caucasus and Baltic. There are many countries in Eastern Europe.  Some are ancient and had kingdoms, some are modern and even very recent.  This section lists by kingdom.  As I researched each country, if I could not find any listed kingdoms, I list the country name, its region and specify "No Kingdoms Found" 

Kingdom Country Tribe or Nationality Existed


None Belarus Eastern Slav 6th Century to Present
None Moldova (Moldavia) Eastern Slav 1346-Present
Rus Khagan Russia Viking 830
Rus Staraya Ladoga Russia Viking 8th Century
Rus Kiev  Russia Viking-Danish 862-1598
Rus Veliky Novgorod Russia Viking 859
Grand Duchy of Moscow  Russia Russian of Danish Descent 1283
Tsardom of Muscovy Russia Polish-Lithuanian 1547-1917
Russia in ancient times was a nomadic territory, various tribes travelled through without establishing permanent settlements or Kingdoms.  Eventually Vikings called Varangians arrived as merchants and pirates establishing trade centers which became city-states.  These city-states had rulers, but are not considered as kingdoms. These Vikings are considered the ancestors of later dynasties.  The population was composed of Slavic, Finno-Ugric, Turkic, Baltic, Finnic, Hungarian and Norse people.  The 800's is thought to be the times where a distinct Rus ethnos developed giving rise to later states from which modern Russia, Belarus and the Ukraine developed.
None Transistria (Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic) Moldovan Modern State
None Ukraine Ukrainian East Slavic 13th Century-Present


None Abhazia Georgian Modern State 1980's
Bagratid Kingdom Armenia Armenian 862-1022
Cilician Kingdom Armenia Armenian 1080-1375
Kingdom of Ararat (Orartu) Armenia Urartian 860 BC - 590 BC
Kingdom of Armenia Armenia Armenian 321 BC to 428 AD
None Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh) Armenian Modern State 1980's
None Azerbaijan Azerbaijani Modern 1918-Present
Kingdom of Colchis Georgia Greek Ended 165 BC

Kingdom of Kartii-Kakheti (Iberia) 

Georgia Georgian 302 BC - 580 AD
None South Osseta (Alania) Ossetian Modern State - 1990's


None Estonia Estonian Viking BC - Present
None Latvia Latvian or Letts 1918-Present
Grand Duchy of Lithuania Lithuania Lithuanian 1253-1569


Kingdom of Albania Albania Albanian 1271-1392
Kingdom of Bosnia Bosnia & Herzegovina Bosnian 1377-1527
Kingdom of Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgarian 681-Present
Kingdom of Croatia Croatia (Alsco in Central Europe) Croatian 925-1102
City-Kingoms of Cyprus Cyprus Greek BC
Paphos Cyprus Greek BC
Salamis Cyprus Greek BC
Soloi Cyprus Greek BC
Kourion Cyprus Greek BC
Chytroi Cyprus Greek BC
Kition Cyprus Greek BC
Amathus Cyprus Greek BC
Idalion Cyprus Greek BC
Ledrai Cyprus Greek BC
Tamassos Cyprus Greek BC
Kyrenia Cyprus Greek BC
Lapethos Cyprus Greek-Phoenician BC
Marion Cyprus Greek BC
Kingdom of Greece Greece Greek BC
City-Kingdoms of Greece Greece Greek BC
Athens Greece Greek 1796 BC-86 BC
Sparta Greece Greek 900's BC-146 BC
Corinth Greece Greek 700 BC-146 BC
Thebes Greece Greek ?-146 BC
Eretria Greece Greek ?-146 BC
Chalcis Euboea Island Greece Greek ?-146 BC
Syracuse Sicily Greek 734 BC-212 BC
Massalia (Marseilles) Gaul (France) Greek 600 BC -49 BC
None Kosovo Albanian/Serbian Modern 1946-Present
Kingdom of Montenegro Montenegro Montenegrin Modern 1910-1918
None North Macedonia Macedonian/Albanian Modern 1991-Present
Kingdom of Macedonia Macedonia Greek 808 BC 0 146 BC
Kingdom of Romania Romania (Also in Central Europe) Romanian 1859-PresentSer
Kingdom of Serbia Serbia (Also in Central Europe) Serbian 1217-1346
None Slovenia (Also in Central Europe) Slovene Modern 1918-Present
See Odrysian below Turkey Thracian & Turkish BC-Present
Turkey is split between Europe and Asia.  Only 3% of Turkey lies in Europe and consists of East Thrace, West of the Dardanelles, Sea of Marmara and the Bosphorus.  However one of the most important cities in the world was in the European area, the city of Constantinople, the capital of the Holy Roman Empire from 330-396 and the Ottoman Empire. In 1923 when Turkey moved its capital to Ankara, Constaninople was renamed Istanbul.  
Kingdom of Odrysian Turkey(Thrace) Thracian 480 BC - 46 AD
Kingdom of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia  Serbo-Croato Slovenian 1918-2003
Yugoslavia came into existence in 1918 under the name of Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes formed from territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire. The concept was to create a country for all South Slavic peoples. In 1929 the name was changed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia.  In 1963 it was renamed as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and consisted of six republics - Bosnia & Herzegovin, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia.  The country was broken up because of civil war and after its political and military leaders were tried for war crimes.  The various republics had combinations and splits through 2008. 


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